Pigmentation: Retinol and other retinoids

Retinol and other retinoids can soften hyperpigmentation through two avenues: firstly, retinol’s skin-renewal effect means that if the pigmentation doesn’t go too deep into the skin, the exfoliating action of retinol helps to remove the outermost, pigmented layers of skin and reveal the brighter, more even-toned skin below. The second way it helps is through inhibiting one of the enzymes involved in pigment synthesis, meaning that the retinol helps in a deeper layer of the skin to stop the hyperpigmentation.